The backhoe is one of the most versatile machines in the areas of construction and road works, in what refers to earthworks and material moving. Designed to meet the highest demands in safety and above all the life of the machine.

While it is common to see a backhoe developing work in different tasks, it is natural to ask, for example, the cost of the machine, its main features, performance etc.

Therefore, since we have the opportunity to follow closely a machine used in construction we focus directly on the backhoe.

Our simulator backhoe is one of our youngest and most innovative projects in which we have invested many efforts to meet the highest expectations.

Why use the Backhoe Simulator of LSyM for learning?

The general purpose of the backhoe simulator is both the training of inexperienced operators and the training of skilled operators who wish to improve skills.

Our objectives are:

  • Reduce the economic cost of the actual machines by devoting less time to the operator training
  • Improve the operator's learning curve, acquiring more skill in less time
  • Train the operator to know how to act in adverse situations in a safe and efficient mode
  • Related to the previous point: Increase safety for operators, other staff and the machines themselves
  • Achieve a quality image projection of the work environment

Simulation environment of civil work

In the simulation environment we can find the elements which are present in a real building work. Operators during simulation can interact with them directly or indirectly.

Backhoe: it is the vehicle which will develop all the exercises. It features a sturdy design of boom and dipperstick section, which is also narrow, so visibility is excellent all along the boom to the bucket, regardeless the depth at which they dig.

Cabin: The backhoes cabin has round visibility, all controls are ergonomically positioned and interior noise level is very low in the cabin. Trucks: for some exercises that require loading and unloading from the backhoe to the truck and vice versa.

Avatars: in the simulation scenario where the backhoe moves we will find several human operators having the main function to assist in manoeuvres done with the backhoe.


The backhoe in workThe backhoe in work at night
The backhoe  a digging bucket workThe backhoe in the cabin

Main features:

  • Dynamic terrain

The backhoe unload material

  • Real-time machine response depending on the type of the terrain and the load
  • Simulation of all joints and actuators of the machine
  • Precision simulated driving motor and drive mechanism
  • Immersive environment based on "Virtual Reality", techniques analogous to the real environment of a workspace of a quarry
  • Real perception of accelerations and movements
  • Injection of failures by the instructor at runtime
  • Dynamic avatars

The backhoe with avatars

  • 100% user configurable sensors
  • Information screen for the user and the instructor
  • Auxiliary information window the status and position of the machine and the operation commands
  • Implementation of a Softpanel that allows the control of the machine through the mouse of the PC
  • Multi language
  • Online system of faults report or comments by the client
  • Users management on a database

Visualization system:

  • High quality images, generated in real time
  • 3D graphics with great detail

The backhoe cabin view

  • Multiple cameras to allow the user to change the viewpoint
  • HUD (Head-Up Display) panel of lighting lamp based on machine real

The backhoe HUD panel

  • Shaders implementation to provide a greater point of excellence to our graphics
  • Visual helpers
  • Graphical friendly user interface

Special conditions:

  • Weather events: wind, rain, fog, snow, etc.
  • Work in different time zones: sunrise, day, sunset, night
  • Realistic response to collisions based on their severity
  • Environmental conditions: smoke, dust, etc.


  • Cabin located on platform with 2 to 6 degrees of freedom
  • Real controls
  • Real operation console
  • Real environment digital sound effects
  • Instructor's console with full control over the simulation

The backhoe instructors' view

  • Projection system with 2 to 5 high resolution screens

Other characteristics:

Sensors (Advanced and HID)

The events income and analogue signals system of the simulator is made to be highly configurable and can be used from gaming devices to high-level electronic boards.

Each client can configure through a simple interface the use of the controls to their liking and according to the type of equipment they use.

Moving platform

The simulator is capable of using a moving platform to simulate sudden movements and accelerations which occur in the real machine.

The main aim is to get the user perceive a greater sense of realism and immersion in learning. Many times, carrying out exercises with virtual reality simulators, either because of its difficulty and lack of physical responses, can cause demotivation on the user of these simulators.

Instructional design:

The backhoe simulator developed by the LSyM group has a complete instructional system divided into blocks, each of these blocks includes a series of exercises that progressively increase its difficulty as the student is overcoming them.

The user of our simulator can perform, among others, the following exercises:

  • Excavation of foundations
  • Preparation of trenches
  • Construction of ramps
  • Preparation of slopes
  • Loading trucks
  • Pipes and conductions
  • Circulation work
  • Signalman
  • Prior Stabilization
  • Loading and unloading at transport platform

Theoretical module

In addition to the practical exercises, the simulator developed by LSyM includes a theoretical module divided into several units in order to provide the student with basic theoretical knowledge of machine operation and safety, among others.

Retro simulator theory

Reports and evaluation:

  • Starting and ending time of the session
  • Date
  • Time length of session
  • Finished exercises
  • Control handling log
  • Velocity log
  • Collision log
  • Dangerous maneuvers log